Physics
- Introduction
- Curriculum
- Teaching & Learning
- Learning Resources
- E-Learning initiatives
- Seminar, Conferences, Webinar and Workshops
- Notices & Events
- Contact Information
History of the Department
Established in 2008, the Department of Physics of Dr. Meghnad Saha College has played a pivotal role in teaching physics in this district as well as in this state. Initially the department has started B.Sc Physics general course only, but at present it offers B.Sc Physics Honours and General Courses. Well-equipped laboratories, hardworking faculty members and suitable environment for teaching and learning physics- are the key features of this department. Thirst for knowledge of budding students are quenched with utmost care by the knowledgeable teaching staff. The dedicated and responsible stakeholders of the department are continuously striving to uphold the value of higher education.
Vision and Mission
- To provide high quality physics education and equipping students for higher education.
- To provide students with state-of-the-art knowledge in Physics to equip students to compete globally.
- To create such infrastructure in the department for meeting the above mission.
- To develop among students, sensitivity to contribute to the betterment of society through knowledge in Physics.
- Envisions training students for quality physics education and equip them with skills for higher studies in higher educational institutions.
Honours Program
Objectives of Honours Program
- To equip students with knowledge, talents and perception in Physics and associated fields.
- To equip them to investigate and speak physics facts, correctly in inter-disciplinary environment.
- To equip college students with the potential to translate and synthesize their knowledge closer to nature, human and development.
- To equip students with the potential to make use of the ideas of Physics which includes Mechanics, Optics, Electricity, Magnetism, Thermodynamics and so on and their programs in addressing the realistic and heuristic issues.
- To demonstrate subject-related and transferable skills that are relevant to some of the physics related jobs and employment opportunity.
Syllabus for the Honours Program
Course outcome:
DC1: Mathematical Physics-I:
- Revise the knowledge of calculus, vectors, vector calculus.
These basic mathematical structures are essential in solving problems in various branches of Physics as well as in engineering.
- Learn the curvilinear coordinates which have applications in problems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries.
- Learn the Dirac delta function its properties, which have applications in various
branches of Physics, especially quantum mechanics.
- In the laboratory course, learn the fundamentals of the python programming
languages and their applications in solving simple physical problems involving interpolations, differentiations, integrations, differential equations as well as finding the roots of equations.
DC2: Mechanics:
- Understand laws of motion and their application to various dynamical situations, notion
of inertial frames and concept of Galilean invariance. He / she will learn the concept of conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and apply them to basic problems.
- Understand the analogy between translational and rotational dynamics, and application
of both motions simultaneously in analyzing rolling with slipping.
- Write the expression for the moment of inertia about the given axis of symmetry for
different uniform mass distributions.
- Understand the phenomena of collisions and idea about center of mass and laboratory
frames and their correlation.
- Understand the principles of elasticity through the study of Young Modulus and
modulus of rigidity.
- Understand simple principles of fluid flow and the equations governing fluid dynamics.
Apply Kepler’s law to describe the motion of planets and satellite in circular orbit, through the study of law of Gravitation.
- Explain the phenomena of simple harmonic motion and the properties of systems
executing such motions.
- Describe how fictitious forces arise in a non-inertial frame, e.g., why a person sitting in
a merry-go-round experiences an outward pull.
- Describe special relativistic effects and their effects on the mass and energy of a
moving object. Appreciate the nuances of Special Theory of Relativity (STR)
DC3: Electricity and Magnetism :
- After going through the course, the student should be able to
- Demonstrate Gauss law, Coulomb’s law for the electric field, and apply it to systems of
point charges as well as line, surface, and volume distributions of charges.
- Explain and differentiate the vector (electric fields, Coulomb’s law) and scalar (electric
potential, electric potential energy) formalisms of electrostatics.
- Apply Gauss’s law of electrostatics to solve a variety of problems.
- Articulate knowledge of electric current, resistance and capacitance in terms of electric
- field and electric potential.
- Demonstrate a working understanding of capacitors.
- Describe the magnetic field produced by magnetic dipoles and electric currents.
- Explain Faraday-Lenz and Maxwell laws to articulate the relationship between electric
- and magnetic fields.
- Understand the dielectric properties, magnetic properties of materials and the
phenomena of electromagnetic induction.
- Describe how magnetism is produced and list examples where its effects are observed.
- Apply Kirchhoff’s rules to analyze AC circuits consisting of parallel and/or series
combinations of voltage sources and resistors and to describe the graphical relationship of resistance, capacitor and inductor.
- Apply various network theorems such as Superposition, Thevenin, Norton, Reciprocity,
Maximum Power Transfer, etc. and their applications in electronics, electrical circuit
- analysis, and electrical machines.
- In the laboratory course the student will get an opportunity to verify various laws in
- electricity and magnetism such as Lenz’s law, Faraday’s law and learn about the
construction, working of various measuring instruments.
- Should be able to verify of various circuit laws, network theorems elaborated above,
using simple electric circuits.
DC4: Wave and Optics: This course will enable the student to
- Recognize and use a mathematical oscillator equation and wave equation, and derive
- these equations for certain systems.
Apply basic knowledge of principles and theories about the behaviour of light and the physical environment to conduct experiments.
- Understand the principle of superposition of waves, so thus describe the formation of
- standing waves.
- Explain several phenomena we can observe in everyday life that can be explained as
- wave phenomena.
- Use the principles of wave motion and superposition to explain the Physics of
- polarisation, interference and diffraction.
- Understand the working of selected optical instruments like biprism, interferometer,
- diffraction grating, and holograms.
- In the laboratory course, student will gain hands-on experience of using various optical
instruments and making finer measurements of wavelength of light using Newton Rings experiment, Fresnel Biprism etc. Resolving power of optical equipment can be learnt
- firsthand.
- The motion of coupled oscillators, study of Lissajous figures and behaviour of
transverse, longitudinal waves can be learnt in this laboratory course.
DC5: Mathematical Physics – II
- Learn the Fourier analysis of periodic functions and their applications in physical
- problems such as vibrating strings etc.
- Learn about the special functions, such as the Hermite polynomial, the Legendre
polynomial, the Laguerre polynomial and Bessel functions and their differential equations and their applications in various physical problems such as in quantum mechanics which they will learn in future courses in detail.
- Learn the beta, gamma and the error functions and their applications in doing
integrations.
- Know about the basic theory of errors, their analysis, estimation with examples of
simple experiments in Physics.
- Acquire knowledge of methods to solve partial differential equations with the
examples of important partial differential equations in Physics.
- In the laboratory course, learn the basics of the Numpy and Scipy, their utility, advantages
and disadvantages.
DC6: Thermal Physics
- Comprehend the basic concepts of thermodynamics, the first and the second law of
thermodynamics, the concept of entropy and the associated theorems, the thermodynamic potentials and their physical interpretations.
- Learn about Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations.
- Learn the basic aspects of kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzman distribution law,
equitation of energies, mean free path of molecular collisions, viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion and Brownian motion.
- Learn about the real gas equations, Van der Waal equation of state, the Joule-
Thompson effect.
- In the laboratory course, the students are expected to do some basic experiments in
thermal Physics, viz., coefficient of thermal
- conductivity, temperature coefficient of resistant.
DC7: Digital Systems and Application As the successful completion of the course the student is expected to be conversant with the following.
- Basic working of an oscilloscope including its different components and to employ the
same to study different wave forms and to measure voltage, current, frequency and phase.
- Secure first-hand idea of different components including both active and passive
components to gain a insight into circuits using discrete components and also to learn
- about integrated circuits.
- About analog systems and digital systems and their differences, fundamental logic
gates, combinational as well as sequential and number systems.
- Synthesis of Boolean functions, simplification and construction of digital circuits by
employing Boolean algebra.
- Sequential systems by choosing FlipFlop as a building bock- construct multivibrators,
counters to provide a basic idea about memory including RAM,ROM and also about memory organization.
DC8: Mathematical Physics – III
- Learn about the complex numbers and their properties, functions of complex numbers
and their properties such as analyticity, poles and residues. The students are expected to learn the residue theorem and its applications in evaluating definite integrals.
- Learn about the Fourier transform, the inverse Fourier transform, their properties and
their applications in physical problems. They are also expected to learn the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transforms, their properties and their applications in solving physical problems.
- In the laboratory course, the students should apply their Python programming
language to solve the problems
- Introduction to octave
DC9: Elements of Modern Physics
- Know main aspects of the inadequacies of classical mechanics and understand historical
development of quantum mechanics and ability to discuss and interpret experiments that reveal the dual nature of matter.
- Understand the theory of quantum measurements, wave packets and uncertainty
principle.
- Understand the central concepts of quantum mechanics: wave functions, momentum and
energy operator, the Schrodinger equation, time dependent and time independent cases, probability density and the normalization techniques, skill development on problem solving e.g. one dimensional rigid box, tunneling through potential barrier, step potential, rectangular barrier.
- Understanding the properties of nuclei like density, size, binding energy, nuclear forces
and structure of atomic nucleus, liquid drop model and nuclear shell model and mass formula.
- Ability to calculate the decay rates and lifetime of radioactive decays like alpha, beta,
gamma decay. Neutrinos and its properties and role in theory of beta decay. Understand fission and fusion well as nuclear processes to produce nuclear energy in nuclear reactor and stellar energy in stars.
- Understand various interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Electron
positron pair creation.
- Understand the spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation, optical pumping and
population inversion. Three level and four level lasers. Ruby laser and He-Ne laser in details. Basic lasing.
- In the laboratory course, the students will get opportunity to perform the following
experiments
- Measurement of Planck’s constant by more than one method.
DC10: Analog Systems and Applications: At the end of the course the student is expected to assimilate the following and possesses basic knowledge of the following. · N- and P- type semiconductors, mobility, drift velocity, fabrication of P-N junctions; forward and reverse biased junctions. · Application of PN junction for different type of rectifiers and voltage regulators. · NPN and PNP transistors and basic configurations namely common base, common emitter and common collector, and also about current and voltage gain. · Biasing and equivalent circuits, coupled amplifiers and feedback in amplifiers and oscillators. · Operational amplifiers and knowledge about different configurations namely inverting and non-inverting and applications of operational amplifiers in D to A and A to D conversions. · To characterize various devices namely PN junction diodes, LEDs, Zener diode, solar cells, PNP and NPN transistors. Also construct amplifiers and oscillators using discrete components. Demonstrate inverting and non-inverting amplifiers using op-amps.
DC11: Solid State Physics:
- At the end of the course the student is expected to learn and assimilate the following.
- A brief idea about crystalline and amorphous substances, about lattice, unit cell, miller
- indices, reciprocal lattice, concept of Brillouin zones and diffraction of X-rays by
- crystalline materials.
- Knowledge of lattice vibrations, phonons and in depth of knowledge of Einstein and
- Debye theory of specific heat of solids.
- At knowledge of different types of magnetism from diamagnetism to ferromagnetism
- and hysteresis loops and energy loss.
- Secured an understanding about the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of materials.
- Understanding above the band theory of solids and must be able to differentiate
- insulators, conductors and semiconductors.
- Understand the basic idea about superconductors and their classifications
DC12:Quantum Mechanics and Applications:
- This course will enable the student to get familiar with quantum mechanics formulation.
- After an exposition of inadequacies of classical mechanics in explaining microscopic
- phenomena, quantum theory formulation is introduced through Schrodinger equation.
- The interpretation of wave function of quantum particle and probabilistic nature of its
- location and subtler points of quantum phenomena are exposed to the student.
- Through understanding the behavior of quantum particle encountering a i) barrier, ii)
- potential, the student gets exposed to solving non-relativistic hydrogen atom, for its
- spectrum and eigenfunctions.
- Study of influence of electric and magnetic fields on atoms will help in understanding
- Stark effect and Zeeman Effect respectively.
DC13: Electromagnetic Theory · Achieve an understanding of the Maxwell’s equations, role of displacement current, gauge transformations, scalar and vector potentials, Coulomb and Lorentz gauge, boundary conditions at the interface between different media. · Apply Maxwell’s equations to deduce wave equation, electromagnetic field energy, momentum and angular momentum density. · Analyse the phenomena of wave propagation in the unbounded, bounded, vacuum, dielectric, guided and unguided media. · Understand the laws of reflection and refraction and to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients at plane interface in bounded media. · Understand the linear, circular and elliptical polarisations of em waves. Production as well as detection of waves in laboratory. · Understand propagation of em waves in anisotropic media, uni-axial and biaxial crystals phase retardation plates and their uses. · Understand the concept of optical rotation, theories of optical rotation and their experimental rotation, calculation of angle rotation and specific rotation. · Understand the features of planar optical wave guide and obtain the Electric field components, Eigen value equations, phase and group velocities in a dielectric wave guide
DC14: Statistical Mechanics
- Understand the concepts of microstate, macrostate, ensemble, phase space, thermodynamic probability and partition function. · Understand the combinatoric studies of particles with their distinguishably or indistinguishably nature and conditions which lead to the three different distribution laws e.g. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Bose-Einstein distribution and Fermi-Dirac distribution laws of particles and their derivation. · Comprehend and articulate the connection as well as dichotomy between classical statistical mechanics and quantum statistical mechanics. · Learn to apply the classical statistical mechanics to derive the law of equipartition of energy and specific heat. · Understand the Gibbs paradox, equipartition of energy and concept of negative temperature in two level system. · Learn to derive classical radiation laws of black body radiation. Wiens law, Rayleigh Jeans law, ultraviolet catastrophe. Saha ionization formula. · Learn to calculate the macroscopic properties of degenerate photon gas using BE distribution law, understand Bose-Einstein condensation law and liquid Helium. Bose derivation of Plank’s law · Understand the concept of Fermi energy and Fermi level, calculate the macroscopic properties of completely and strongly degenerate Fermi gas, electronic contribution to specific heat of metals. · Understand the application of F-D statistical distribution law to derive thermodynamic functions of a degenerate Fermi gas, electron gas in metals and their properties
DSE1:
Advanced Mathematical Physics I Learn the basic properties of the linear vector space such as linear dependence and independence of vectors, change of basis, isomorphism and homomorphism, linear transformations and their representation by matrices.
Or
Nuclear and Particle Physics Learn the ground state properties of a nucleus – the constituents and their properties, mass number and atomic number, relation between the mass number and the radius and the mass number, average density, range of force, saturation property, stability curve, the concepts of packing fraction and binding energy, binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number graph, explanation of fusion and fission from the nature of the binding energy graph. · Know about the nuclear models and their roles in explaining the ground state properties of the nucleus –(i) the liquid drop model, its justification so far as the nuclear properties are concerned, the semi-empirical mass formula, (ii) the shell model, evidence of shell structure, magic numbers, predictions of ground state spin and parity, theoretical deduction of the shell structure, consistency of the shell structure with the Pauli exclusion principles.
DSE2: Classical Dynamics · Revise the knowledge of the Newtonian, the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics and their applications in appropriate physical problems. · Learn about the small oscillation problems. · Recapitulate and learn the special theory of relativity- postulates of the special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations on space-time and other four vectors, four-vector notations, space-time invariant length, length contraction, time dilation, mass-energy relation, Doppler effect, light cone and its significance, problems involving energymomentum conservations.
Or
Communication Electronics At the end of the course the student is expected to have an idea/concept of the following, · Electromagnetic spectra and different frequency bands. · Modulation, different types of modulation and about super heterodyne receivers. · Concept of sampling, sampling theorem and multiplexing. · Digital transmission, encoding and decoding. · Satellite communication including uplinking and downlinking.
DSE3:
Advanced Mathematical Physics II
- Learn the basic properties of matrices, different types of matrices viz., Hermitian, skew Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their correspondence to physical quantities, e.g, operators in quantum mechanics. They should also learn how to find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices.
- Learn some basic properties tensors, their symmetric and antisymmetric nature, the Cartesian tensors, the general tensors, contravariant, covariant and mixed tensors and their transformation properties under coordinate transformations, physical examples of tensors such as moment of inertia tensor, energy momentum tensor, stress tensor, strain tensor etc.
Or
Applied Dynamics
Ability to define, characterize and detect various types of chaos and their dependence on initial condition using various order parameters.
SEC1: Electrical circuits & Network Skills
After the completion of the course students will acquire necessary skills to design and analyze basic electrical circuits.They will learn about various measuring instruments like voltmeter, ammeter etc.
Or
Computational Physics Skills:
Students will learn importance of computers in problems in physics. They will learn to draw flow chart and to write algorithm.
SEC2: Renewable Energy & Energy harvesting The students are expected to learn not only the theories of the renewable sources of energy, but also to have hands-on experiences on them wherever possible. Some of the renewable sources of energy which should be studied here are: (i) off-shore wind energy, (ii) tidal energy, (iii) solar energy, (iv) biogas energy and (v) hydroelectricity.
Or
Basic Instrumentation Skills After the successful completion of the course the student is expected to have the necessary working knowledge on accuracy, precision, resolution, range and errors/uncertainty in measurements. He/she will acquire hands on skills in the usage of oscilloscopes, multimeters, multivibrators, rectifiers, amplifiers, oscillators and high voltage probes. He also would have gained knowledge on the working and operations of LCR Bridge, generators, digital meters and counters.
Generic Elective:
Objective of Generic Elective:
- To equip students with knowledge, talents and perception in Physics and associated fields.
- To equip them to investigate and speak physics facts, correctly in inter-disciplinary environment.
- To equip college students with the potential to translate and synthesize their knowledge closer to nature, human and development.
- To equip students with the potential to make use of the ideas of Physics which includes Mechanics, Optics, Electricity, Magnetism, Thermodynamics and so on and their programs in addressing the realistic and heuristic issues.
- To demonstrate subject-related and transferable skills that are relevant to some of the physics related jobs and employment opportunity.
Syllabus for the Generic Elective: CLICK HERE
Course outcome:
GE-1: Mechanics:
· Understand the role of vectors and coordinate systems in Physics.
· Write the expression for the moment of inertia about the given axis of symmetry for different uniform mass distributions.
· Explain the conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and apply them to basic problems.
· Understand the analogy between translational and rotational dynamics, and application of both motions simultaneously in analyzing rolling with slipping.
· Apply Kepler’s law to describe the motion of planets and satellite in circular orbit.
· Explain the phenomena of simple harmonic motion and the properties of systems executing such motions
GE-2: Electricity and Magnetism:
· Demonstrate Coulomb’s law for the electric field, and apply it to systems of point charges as well as line, surface, and volume distributions of charges.
· Explain and differentiate the vector (electric fields, Coulomb’s law) and scalar (electric potential, electric potential energy) formalisms of electrostatics.
· Apply Gauss’s law of electrostatics to solve a variety of problems.
· Articulate knowledge of electric current, resistance and capacitance in terms of electric field and electric potential.
· Demonstrate a working understanding of capacitors.
· Describe the magnetic field produced by magnetic dipoles and electric currents.
· Explain Faraday-Lenz and Maxwell laws to articulate the relationship between electric and magnetic fields.
· Describe how magnetism is produced and list examples where its effects are observed.
GE-3:Thermal Physics and Statistical Mechanics:
· Learn the basic concepts of thermodynamics, the first and the second law of thermodynamics, the concept of entropy and the associated theorems, the thermodynamic potentials and their physical interpretations. They are also expected to learn Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations.
· Know the fundamentals of the kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzman distribution law, equipartition of energies, mean free path of molecular collisions, viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion and Brownian motion.
· Have a knowledge of the real gas equations, Van der Waal equation of state, the JouleThompson effect
· Learn about the black body radiations, Stefan- Boltzmann’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law and Planck’s law and their significances.
· Learn the quantum statistical distributions, viz., the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.
GE-4:Waves and Optics: Recognize and use a mathematical oscillator equation and wave equation, and derive these equations for certain systems.
· Apply basic knowledge of principles and theories about the behavior of light and the physical environment to conduct experiments.
· Understand the principle of superposition of waves, so thus describe the formation of standing waves.
· Explain several phenomena we can observe in everyday life that can be explained as wave phenomena.
· Use the principles of wave motion and superposition to explain the Physics of polarisation, interference and diffraction.
· Understand the working of selected optical instruments like biprism, interferometer, diffraction grating, and holograms.
Faculty Profile
PROSENJIT CHOUDHURY | |
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR & HOD | |
M.Sc. | |
SAUKAT ALI | |
SACT | |
M.Sc, B.Ed | |
Rajib Banik | |
SACT | |
M.Sc | |
Students:
Physics honours intake capacity & distribution of seat (category wise)
UR | OBC-A | OBC-B | SC | ST | PH | TOTAL |
11 | 3 | 2 | 6 | 2 | 0 | 24 |
Enrollment 2019-2020,1st semester honours
Total | Male | Female | SC | ST | OBC-A | OBC-B | General |
9 | 4 | 5 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 0 | 4 |
Enrollment 2019-2020, Part-II honours
Total | Male | Female | SC | ST | OBC-A | OBC-B | General |
1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |
Enrollment 2019-2020, Part-III honours
Total | Male | Female | SC | ST | OBC-A | OBC-B | General |
3 | 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 0 | 1 |
Physics general intake capacity
UR | OBC-A | OBC-B | SC | ST | PH | TOTAL | |
NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | 36 |
Teaching Methodology
- Lab based learning:
Physics is a lab-based subject. Physics laboratory helps to understand the concepts through hand on experiments. In compliance with the syllabus, the department has laboratory for honours and general students.
- Internal assessment:
The schedules of internal assessments are communicated to students and faculty in the beginning of the semester through proper notification from the institute. Syllabus for internal assessment is communicated to students well in advance. Question papers are set based on Course outcomes and Solution are prepared by the faculty on completion of the assessment.
- Participatory Learning:
All classes whether it is theory or practical- are taken by the teachers in an interactive way. Students are constantly encouraged to ask questions and to discuss to the teachers and to their fellow classmates. The Department regularly conducts classes of both honours and pass course with using ICT and traditional board and chalk method.
- Strategies for slow learners:
Special and extra classes are taken for the slow learners.
1. Prof. Bhabani Prasad Mandal , Department of Physics , Banaras Hindu University , Varanasi,India
2. Prof. Anirban Pathak, Department of Physics , Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida,India
3. Dr. Samir Kumar Biswas, Department of Physics , IISER,Mohali,India
No of Participants-86
Name of the event- Online special lecture on ” Relativity: A Layman’s Perspective” Date- 24th June,2020 Resource Person-
Professor Subenoy Chakraborty, Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, India
No of participants-105
Name of the event- One day state level seminar on “Recent trends in Physical Science” Date- 18th March,2019 Resource Person(s)-
1. Dr. Achintya Kumar Chatterjee, Associate Professor in Physics, Malda College,Malda
2. Dr. Pinaki Chakraborty, Associate Professor in Physics, Raiganj University,Raiganj
3. Dr. Subhamoy Chowdhury, Associate Professor in Chemistry, University of Gaur Banga, Malda
No of Participants-74
PHSH AWARD LIST DATE-2019.11.25
PHSH AWARD LIST DATE-2019.08.31
PHSH NOTICE DATE-2019.01.10 (3)
PHSH NOTICE DATE-2019.01.10 (2)
Email: drmsc.physics@gmail.com
WhatsApp Group Link
Semester-1: CLICK HERE
Semester-2: CLICK HERE
Part-2: CLICK HERE
Facebook Page: CLICK HERE